Beyond Attendance: A Multi-Modal Understanding of Arts Participation

Jennifer L. Novak-Leonard, Alan Brown


Using Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) data from 1982–2008, this NEA research monograph explores the breadth of participation within and between three primary categories, or “modes,” of arts activities: arts attendance, personal arts creation and performance, and arts participation through electronic media. In addition, the monograph offers additional context for understanding arts participation, suggests that a more expansive framework for the cultural ecology is needed, and discusses implications of the SPPA data and other trends for practice, policy, and future research.

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